NC100 IO Specification
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Original NCIOSPEC.TXT follows: The following notes describe the low level operation of the Amstrad Notepad computers. They are intended for third party developers who want to program the Notepad in machine code. As always, I will try to help out if anyone has questions about this but I cannot give an absolute guarantee to be able to provide support on the low level operation of the machine. It is our intention that these firmware routines and system variables should be maintained in future issues of the software but we cannot give an absolute guarantee about this. Cliff Lawson CIS: 75300,1517 Notepad project manager email: email@example.com Amstrad Plc firstname.lastname@example.org 169 Kings Road Phone: (+44) 277 208341 Brentwood Fax: (+44) 277 208065 Essex CM14 4EF ENGLAND I/O Specification for Amstrad NC100 All numbers are in hexadecimal unless suffixed with a "b" for binary or "d" for decimal. (Address line numbers A19, A18, etc are in decimal). SUMMARY Address Comment R/W E0-FF Not Used - D0-DF RTC (TC8521) R/W C0-C1 UART (uPD71051) R/W B0-B9 Key data in R A0 Card Status etc. R 90 IRQ request status R/W 80-8F Not Used 70 Power on/off control W 60 IRQ Mask W 50-53 Speaker frequency W 40 Parallel port data W 30 Baud rate etc. W 20 Card wiat control W 10-13 Memory management R/W 00 Display memory start W In Detail Address = 00 Write only start address of display memory bit 7 A15 bit 6 A14 bit 5 A13 bit 4 A12 bits 3-0 Not Used On reset this is set to 0. The display memory for the 8 line NC computers consists of a block of 4096 bytes where the first byte defines the state of the pixels in the top left hand corner of the screen. A 1 bit set means the pixel is set to black. The first byte controls the first 8 dots with bit 7 controlling the bit on the left. The next 59 bytes complete the first raster line of 480 dots. The bytes which define the second raster line start at byte 64 to make the hardware simpler so bytes 60, 61, 62 and 63 are wasted. There are then another 64 bytes (with the last 4 unused) which defines the second raster line and so on straight down the screen. That is (all numbers decimal): byte00 byte01 byte02 byte60 byte61 byte63 Bit Number 76543210 76543210 76543210 .. 76543210 76543210.. 76543210 Pixel Number 01234567 89012345 67890123 .. 23456789 wasted .. wasted (read bottom 00000000 00111111 11112222 77777777 to top decimal) 00000000 00000000 00000000 44444444 ....and so on for subsequent lines. (Second line = bytes 64..127 etc.) Address = 10..13 Read/Write Memory management control 10 controls 0000-3FFF 11 controls 4000-7FFF 12 controls 8000-BFFF 13 controls C000-FFFF On reset all are set to 0. For each address the byte written has the following meaning: bit 7 together they select ROM, internal RAM, card RAM bit 6 00b = ROM 01b = internal RAM 10b = card RAM bits 5-0 determine address lines 19 to 14. Therefore, 00 is the first 16K of ROM, 01 is the second 16K, etc. 40 is the first 16K of internal RAM, 41=second 16K, etc. 80 is the first 16K of card RAM, 81=second 16K, etc. So, for example, if you want to switch the third 16K of internal RAM so the processor sees it at 4000-7FFF you would output the value 42 to I/O address 11. 42 has bits 7,6 = 01b and bits 5-0 are 00010b which is the third 16K of internal RAM. Address = 20 Write only Memory card wait state control bit 7 = 1 for wait states, 0 for no wait On reset this is set to 1. The bit should be set if the card RAM/ROM is 200nS or slower. Address = 30 Write only Baud rate etc. bit 7 select card register 1=common, 0=attribute bit 6 parallel interface Strobe signal bit 5 Not Used bit 4 uPD4711 line driver, 1=off, 0=on bit 3 UART clock and reset, 1=off, 0=on bits 2-0 set the baud rate as follows 000 = 150 001 = 300 010 = 600 011 = 1200 100 = 2400 101 = 4800 110 = 9600 111 = 19200 On reset all data is set to 1. If programming the UART directly ensure that TxD clock is operating x16. Address = 40 Write only Parallel interface data The byte written here is latched into the parallel port output register. To print it you must then take the Strobe signal (I/O address 30 bit 6) low and then high again. If the printer sends ACK this may generate an IRQ if the mask bit is set in I/O address 60 - IRQ mask. Address = 50..53 Write only Sound channels period control 50 channel A period low 51 channel A period high 52 channel B period low 53 channel B period high On reset all data is set to FF. The top bit in the high byte (51 and 53) switches the resepective sound generator on or off - 1=off, 0=on. The frequency generated is determined as: Frequency = 1,000,000d ---------- data * 2 * 1.6276 So if the data word programmed into 50 and 51 was 7800 (ie 50=0, 51=78) then the frequency generated would be: freq = 1,000,000 = 1,000,000 = 1,000,000 = 10Hz --------- --------- --------- 7800h * 2 * 1.6276 30720 * 2 * 1.6276 99,999.7 Address = 60 Write only Interrupt request mask bits 7-4 Not Used bit 3 Key Scan interrupt (every 10mS) bit 2 ACK from parallel interface bit 1 Tx Ready from UART bit 0 Rx Ready from UART On reset all bits are 0. For each bit, 1=allow that interrupt source to produce IRQs. 0 = interrupt source is masked. Address = 70 Write only Power off control bits 7-1 Not Used bit 0 1 = no effect, 0 = power off On reset this is set to 1. Address = 90 Read/Write IRQ status bits 7-4 Not Used bit 3 Key scan bit 2 ACK from parallel interface bit 1 Tx Ready interrupt bit 0 Rx Ready interrupt When an interrupt occurs this port should be read to determine the source of the interrupt. The bit will be set to 0 to identify the interrupting device. The interrupt can then be cleared by writing 0 to that bit. Address = A0 Read only Memory card/battery status bit 7 Memory card present 0 = yes, 1 = no bit 6 Card write protected 1 = yes, 0 = no bit 5 Input voltage = 1 if >= to 4 Volts bit 4 Mem card battery. 0 = battery is low bit 3 Alkaline batteries. 0 if >= 3.2 Volts bit 2 Lithium battery. 0 if >= 2.7 Volts bit 1 Parallel interface BUSY (0 if busy) bit 0 Parallel interface ACK (1 if ACK) Address = B0 - B9 Read only Keyboard data B0..B9 each key of the 64 on the keyboard will set a bit in one of these bytes while pressed. The gate array scans the keyboard every 10mS and then generates an interrupt. The program should then read these 10 I/O locations to determine which key(s) is pushed. When I/O address B9 is read the key scan interrupt is cleared automatically and the next scan cycle will start from B0. Address = C0 Read/Write UART control/data C0 UART data register C1 UART status/control register The UART is the NEC uPD71051. Programmers are advised to study the data sheet for that chip for more information. The Serial interface requires that the uPD4711 line driver chip be truned on by writing a 0 to bit 4 of I/O address 30. While turned on power consumption increases so this should only be done when necessary. Address = D0 Read/Write Real Time Clock chip (TM8521) D0..DC Data DD Control register DE Control register (Write only) DF Control register (Write only) See data sheet of chip for more information. ---- NC100 operating system firmware notes for external program writers To get external programs executed on the Notepad you could either POKE them into memory in BBC BASIC (or even use its built-in Z80 assembler) and then CALL the entry point. However, this does have the drawback of needing to transfer the code back to the machine each time it crashes (as it inevitably will). The simplest way to develop for the Notepad is to get a PCMCIA drive for your PC and write a binary image direct to the card using that. If this isn't possible then small programs (up to 16K) can be developed by transferring the binary card image into the Notepad using Xmodem from the PC. The use the "Make program card" feature in the File, transfer menu to write that file onto a newly formatted PCMCIA RAM card. In either case, to run the resultant code, you just press Function-X (eXecute) and the first 16K page of the RAM card will be switched to the Z80 memory map at C000..FFFF. A Check is made that location C200 holds the ASCII text "NC100PRG" and also that locations C210..C212 contains a long jump to C220. All being well, the Z80 starts executing code at C210 so that, once you have control, you can take over completely if you wish (driving all hardware functions directly). Most people will probably want to cooperate with the in built firmware as it provides most of the routines that one would require anyway. The ASCII text "NC100PRG" must appear at C200h program origin is C210h program MUST start with jp C220h the program name is at C213h, max 12 characters, zero terminated org C200h db "NC100PRG" org c210h jp start db "PROGRAM NAME",0 org C220h start available workspace A000h to A3FFh (shared with other programs) also A800h to AFFFh (this is overwritten if selectfile is called) the program MUST handle yellow events :- either exit when Stop is pressed or check for yellow event with kmgetyellow and return if carry set Serious developers may be interested in contacting Ranger Computers Ltd on (+44) 604 589200 as they can produce a device that looks like RAM to a PC but ends in a PCMCIA header plug that connects directly to the Notepad's card slot and the "PC RAM" appears as card RAM to the Notepad. The following sequence is a working(!) piece of code written for the AVMACZ80 assembler on a PC, which, when assmembled produces a binary file that can be programmed onto a PCMCIA card and executed. The program just reads keys and prints them back until "Q" is pressed. Notice that exit from the program is just by a RET back to the operating system that called it: ;VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV include "nc100jmp.inc" ;The list of firmware routine ;addresses given later in this ;file DEFSEG Fred, CLASS=CODE, START=0 SEG Fred ;Seg will be linked to RUNSAT C000h jp start ;put a jump at the start in case this code is ;ever programmed into a ROM page where the entry ;will almost certainly be made at the more ;normal C000. ds 509 ;waste first 512 bytes of card to start at C200 ; ; following 16 bytes are Arnor's header for card at C200 ; db "NC100PRG",0,0,0,0,0,3,0,1 ; ; then card program must start with this long jump at C210 ; jp start ;this is at C210h db "CLIFFS PROG",0,0 ;0's pad to C220h start: call kmreadchar ld a,c cp "q" jr z,finish call txtoutput jr start finish: ret end ;^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ; code is assembled with: ; AVMACZ80 TEST.ASM ;which produces a .OBJ file which is then linked to produce a .HEX file ;with the command ; AVLINK @TEST.LNK ;where TEST.LNK contains: ; TEST.HEX=TEST.OBJ -RUNSAT(Fred, 0C000h) ;finally the Intel .HEX file is converted to .BIN using a HEX2BIN converter ;The .BIN file is either written to the PCMCIA card using a PC based ;card drive or it can be Xmodemed across to the Notepad and written to ;the card using "Make program card". Finally, Function-X executes it. In other assemblers you may not have "segments" and must use a direct ORG to locate code at C000 but watch out for the resultant .HEX file being padded out with 48K of "0"s from 0000 to BFFF!! Alphabetic list of routine entry points ======================================= To use any one of these routines just load the registers as described in the following and then call the relevant address. Although the running of the routine may involve a different ROM bank being switched in, this mechanism is invisble to the caller. So, for example, to print a capital A one might use: txtoutput EQU B833 LD A,"A" CALL txtoutput col1 equ B818h col1text equ B81Bh diskservice equ BA5Eh editbuf equ B800h fclose equ B890h fdatestamp equ B8C9h ferase equ B893h fgetattr equ B8CFh finblock equ B896h finchar equ B899h findfirst equ B89Ch findnext equ B89Fh fnoisy equ B917h fopenin equ B8A2h fopenout equ B8A5h fopenup equ B8A8h foutblock equ B8ABh foutchar equ B8AEh fquiet equ B91Ah frename equ B8B1h fseek equ B8B4h fsetattr equ B8CCh fsize equ B8B7h fsizehandle equ B8BAh ftell equ B8BDh ftesteof equ B8C0h heapaddress equ B87Eh heapalloc equ B881h heapfree equ B884h heaplock equ B887h heapmaxfree equ B88Ah heaprealloc equ B88Dh kmcharreturn equ B803h kmgetyellow equ B8D2h kmreadkbd equ B806h kmreadchar equ B9B3h kmsetexpand equ B809h kmsettickcount equ B80Ch kmsetyellow equ B8D5h kmwaitkbd equ B80Fh lapcat_receive equ B8D8h lapcat_send equ B8DBh mcprintchar equ B851h mcreadyprinter equ B854h mcsetprinter equ B857h padgetticker equ B872h padgettime equ B875h padgetversion equ B8DEh padinitprinter equ BA4Fh padinitserial equ B85Ah padinserial equ B85Dh padoutparallel equ B860h padoutserial equ B863h padreadyparallel equ B866h padreadyserial equ B869h padresetserial equ B86Ch padserialwaiting equ B86Fh padsetalarm equ B878h padsettime equ B87Bh pagemodeon equ BA49h pagemodeoff equ BA4Ch readbuf equ B812h selectfile equ B8C3h setdta equ B8C6h testescape equ B815h textout equ B81Eh textoutcount equ B821h txtboldoff equ B83Fh txtboldon equ B842h txtclearwindow equ B824h txtcuroff equ B827h txtcuron equ B82Ah txtgetcursor equ B82Dh txtgetwindow equ B830h txtinverseoff equ B845h txtinverseon equ B848h txtoutput equ B833h txtsetcursor equ B836h txtsetwindow equ B839h txtunderlineoff equ B84Bh txtunderlineon equ B84Eh txtwrchar equ B83Ch Notepad memory map ================== 16K code/data sections always mapped to C000h ÚÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ¿ ÚÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÂÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÂÄÄÄÄÂÄÄÄÄÂÄÄÄÄÂÄÄÄÄÄÂÄÄÄÄÄÄ¿ ³ video RAM ³ ³Protext ³Dictionary³Con-³Calc³Addr³Diary³ BBC ³ ³---------------³ ³ ³ data ³trol³ ³book³ ³BASIC ³ ³ RAM ³ ³ 1 & 2 ³ 6 blocks ³ ³ ³ ³ ³ ³ ÃÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ´ C000 ÀÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÁÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÁÄÄÄÄÁÄÄÄÄÁÄÄÄÄÁÄÄÄÄÄÁÄÄÄÄÄÄÙ ³stack/variables³ \ ³---------------³ B000 | common RAM (accessible by all programs) ³ RAM ³ / ÃÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ´ 8000 ÚÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ¿ ³ ³ ³ ³ ³ RAM ³ ³ PLS ³ ³ ³ ³ ³ ÃÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ´ 4000 ÚÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄ¿ ³ spell ³ ³ ³ ³OS- remaps high³ ³ checking ³ ³ RAM ³ ³---------------³ ³ code ³ ³ ³ ³ Startup code ³ ³ ³ ÀÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÙ 0 ÀÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÙ ÀÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÄÙ general notes: most routines return carry set if successful unless otherwise stated assume AF corrupted, other regs preserved "all registers preserved" includes flags, but NOT alternate registers the ALTERNATE register contents can NEVER be assumed to be preserved (they are used as scratch registers in time critical routines) ============== editbuf = B800 ============== line editor with options zero-terminated string may be passed in buffer (HL) this will display the initial contents ENTRY - HL : pointer to input buffer B : size of buffer (excluding terminating zero) A : flags. b2=1 -> �� terminate entry b3=1 -> input not echoed b6=1 -> dotty background (character 176) b5=1 -> edit unless characters entered b4=1 -> delete trailing spaces Other bits must be set to zero. EXIT - c=0 z=1 ESC pressed c=1 z=1 empty string input c=1 z=0 at least one character entered HL preserved BC = last key token (or -1 if ESC used to terminate) =================== kmcharreturn = B803 =================== returns a token to the keyboard buffer ENTRY - BC = the token EXIT - all registers preserved ================ kmreadkbd = B806 ================ Gets a key token if there is one, does not wait (Checks put back character and expands macros) Returns tick event tokens if enabled ENTRY - none EXIT c=1 : BC = token (B=0 for simple character) c=0 : no key token available ================= kmreadchar = B9B3 ================= This routine is the same as kmreadkbd but macros are exapnded and one or two other "behind the scenes" tasks are performed. By using this routine you can be sure that the Ctrl+Shift+S screen dump mechanism works in your code ================== kmsetexpand = B809 ================== Defines a macro string ENTRY - BC = macro token (between 256 and 383) - HL points to new macro string (first byte is the length, followed by the string - need not be zero terminated) EXIT - c=1 if macro defined successfully c=0 if insufficient room in buffer (The buffer size is user configurable) ===================== kmsettickcount = B80C ===================== Enables the ticker event There are 100 ticks per second When a ticker event occurs t.tickevent is returned by kmreadkbd ENTRY - HL : number of ticks before first event DE : number of ticks between events EXIT - all registers preserved ================ kmwaitkbd = B80F ================ Waits for a key token, uses kmreadkbd (Checks put back character and expands macros) Returns tick event tokens if enabled ENTRY - none EXIT c=1 : BC = token (B=0 for simple character) ============== readbuf = B812 ============== line editor. See also editbuf. ENTRY - HL : pointer to input buffer (empty) B : size of buffer (excluding terminating zero) EXIT - c=0 z=1 ESC pressed c=1 z=1 empty string input c=1 z=0 at least one character entered HL preserved BC = last key token (or -1 if ESC used to terminate) ================= testescape = B815 ================= tests whether an ESC key has been pressed (STOP or FUNCTION) waits for a key if one is found in the keyboard buffer ENTRY - none EXIT - c=1 if no ESC key in buffer c=1 if ESC key in buffer but STOP not pressed c=0 if ESC key in buffer and STOP then pressed A is preserved =========== col1 = B818 =========== if cursor is at start of a line do nothing otherwise move cursor to start of next line (within window) ENTRY - none EXIT - none =============== col1text = B81B =============== same as textout, but calls col1 first ============== textout = B81E ============== displays string ENTRY - HL : pointer to zero-terminated string *************************************************************** WARNING - HL must not point into an upper ROM! *************************************************************** EXIT - none =================== textoutcount = B821 =================== as textout, returns character count in B ===================== txtclearwindow = B824 ===================== clears current window and moves cursor to top left ================ txtcuroff = B827 ================ removes the cursor from the screen ENTRY - none EXIT - all registers preserved =============== txtcuron = B82A =============== displays the cursor on the screen ENTRY - none EXIT - all registers preserved =================== txtgetcursor = B82D =================== returns the cursor position ENTRY - none EXIT - H = column (between 0 and 79) L = row (between 0 and 7) =================== txtgetwindow = B830 =================== returns the window coordinates ENTRY - none EXIT - H = left column (between 0 and 79) L = top row (between 0 and 7) D = right column (between 0 and 79) E = bottom row (between 0 and 7) c=0 if window is whole screen c=1 if a smaller window has been ================ txtoutput = B833 ================ displays a character or acts on control code ENTRY - A = character A=7 : beeps A=10 : LF A=13 : CR All other values displayed as character (PC char. set) EXIT - all registers preserved =================== txtsetcursor = B836 =================== moves the cursor ENTRY - H = column (between 0 and 79) L = row (between 0 and 7) EXIT - none =================== txtsetwindow = B839 =================== defines a new window ENTRY - H = left column (between 0 and 79) L = top row (between 0 and 7) D = right column (between 0 and 79) E = bottom row (between 0 and 7) EXIT - none ================ txtwrchar = B83C ================ displays a character ENTRY - A = character. All values displayed (PC char. set) EXIT - all registers preserved ====================== txtboldoff = B83F txtboldon = B842 txtinverseoff = B845 txtinverseon = B848 txtunderlineoff = B84B txtunderlineon = B84E ====================== These six routines enable or disable various display attributes. They have no entry conditions and preserve all registers. ================== mcprintchar = B851 ================== sends a character to the printer ENTRY - A=character EXIT - c=1 if successful c=0 if not sent A preserved ===================== mcreadyprinter = B854 ===================== tests whether the printer is ready ENTRY - none EXIT - c=0 if busy c=1 if ready A preserved =================== mcsetprinter = B857 =================== sets the printer type to be used by mcprintchar and mcreadyprinter ENTRY - A=printer type, 0=parallel, 1=serial EXIT - none ==================== padinitserial = B85A ==================== initialises the serial port using the global configured settings turns on the UART and 4711 do not call this until needed - to prolong battery life ENTRY - none EXIT - none ================== padinserial = B85D ================== reads a character from the serial port ENTRY - none EXIT - c=1 if successful, A=character c=0 if no character read ===================== padoutparallel = B806 ===================== sends a character to the parallel port ENTRY - A=character EXIT - c=1 if successful c=0 if not sent A preserved =================== padoutserial = B863 =================== sends a character to the serial port ENTRY - A=character EXIT - c=1 if successful c=0 if not sent A preserved ======================= padreadyparallel = B866 ======================= tests whether the parallel port is ready ENTRY - none EXIT - c=0 if busy c=1 if ready A preserved ===================== padreadyserial = B869 ===================== tests whether the serial port is ready ENTRY - none EXIT - c=0 if busy c=1 if ready A preserved ===================== padresetserial = B86C ===================== turns off the UART and 4711 call this when finished using the serial port to prolong battery life ENTRY - none EXIT - none ======================= padserialwaiting = B86F ======================= tests whether there is a character waiting to be read from the serial port ENTRY - none EXIT - c=1 if character waiting c=0 if no character waiting =================== padgetticker = B872 =================== returns the address of a 4 byte 100Hz ticker ENTRY - none EXIT - HL is the address of the least significant byte ================= padgettime = B875 ================= reads the time and date from the RTC ENTRY - HL points to an 7 byte buffer to use EXIT - HL preserved data returned as above (see padsettime) ================== padsetalarm = B878 ================== sets the ALARM date and time (within next month) ENTRY - HL points to 3 byte data area byte 0=date 1=hour 2=minute EXIT - none ================= padsettime = B87B ================= sets the RTC date and time ENTRY - HL points to 7 byte data area bytes 0,1 = year (low,high) 2=month 3=date 4=hour 5=minute 6=second EXIT - none ================== heapaddress = B87E ================== obtains the address of a memory block for a given memory handle ENTRY - DE = memory handle EXIT - HL = pointer to memory block ================ heapalloc = B881 ================ allocates a block of memory from the heap ENTRY - DE = number of bytes to allocate EXIT - HL = memory handle in range [1,63] if successful HL = 0 if failed Note: heapaddress must be used to get a pointer to the memory block Unless the block is locked with heaplock, heapaddress must be called each time the memory block is used. IT MAY HAVE MOVED! =============== heapfree = B884 =============== frees a block of memory ENTRY - DE = memory handle, returned by heapalloc or heaprealloc EXIT - none (preserves HL,BC) Note: the memory handle passed must be a valid handle returned by heapalloc or heaprealloc. This is not validated. =============== heaplock = B887 =============== locks or unlocks a memory block ENTRY - DE = memory handle BC = non zero - the block is locked. It will not be moved until unlocked so fixed addresses can be used as pointers into the block BC = 0 - the block is unlocked ================== heapmaxfree = B88A ================== returns the largest block size that can be allocated ENTRY - none EXIT - HL = largest free block size in bytes ================== heaprealloc = B88D ================== changes the size of an allocated memory block ENTRY - DE = memory handle BC = new size for memory block EXIT HL = zero if failed to reallocate The old block will not be freed but could have moved HL = non-zero if successful Note: if the block is being expanded, it must be assumed that the base of the memory block will be moved (even if the block cannot actually be expanded) so heapaddress must be called afterwards. If the block is being contracted, the base will not move. ============= fclose = B890 ============= closes a file ENTRY - DE = file handle EXIT - c=1 if successful, c=0 if failed ============= ferase = B893 ============= erases a file ENTRY - HL = zero-terminated filename EXIT - c=1 if OK, c=0 if error (file not found) =============== finblock = B896 =============== reads a block from a file ENTRY - DE = file handle - HL = buffer - BC = number of bytes to read (> 0) EXIT - c=1 if end of file not reached - c=0 if eof (or error?) - BC = number of bytes read - HL = address after last byte read KNOWN BUG (1.00,1.01) - finblock does not set the file position so repeated calls will always read from the start of the file Workaround: call fseek after calling finblock to set the pointer ============ finchar B899 ============ reads a byte from a file ENTRY - DE = file handle EXIT - c=1 if successful, A=character c=0, A corrupt if end of file reached other regs preserved ================ findfirst = B89C ================ finds first file. setdta must have been called first ENTRY - none EXIT - HL=0 if no files - HL points to file info structure if file found - 1st item in structure is the filename, zero-terminated - (up to 12 characters long) - offset 13 is attribute byte - offset 14/15 is the file size in bytes =============== findnext = B89F =============== finds next file. findfirst must have been called first ENTRY - none EXIT - HL=0 if no more files - HL as findfirst if file found ============== fopenin = B8A2 ============== opens a file for input ENTRY - HL points to zero-terminated filename EXIT - c=1 if successful, DE=file handle c=0 if failed (file not found) DE corrupt if error A corrupt, other regs preserved =============== fopenout = B8A5 =============== opens a file for output ENTRY - HL points to zero-terminated filename EXIT - c=1 if successful, DE=file handle c=0 if failed (out of memory/too many files/file exists) DE corrupt if error A corrupt, other regs preserved ============== fopenup = B8A8 ============== opens a file for input and output. the file must exist already ENTRY - HL points to zero-terminated filename EXIT - c=1 if successful, DE=file handle c=0 if file not found DE corrupt if error A corrupt, other regs preserved ================ foutblock = B8AB ================ writes a block to a file ENTRY - DE = file handle - HL = buffer - BC = number of bytes to write (> 0) EXIT - c=1 if OK - c=0 if error - BC = number of bytes written - HL = address after last byte written =============== foutchar = B8AE =============== writes a byte to a file ENTRY - DE = file handle - A = character EXIT - c=1 if successful c=0, A corrupt if end of file reached A corrupt, other regs preserved ============== frename = B8B1 ============== renames a file ENTRY - HL = zero-terminated old filename - DE = zero-terminated new filename EXIT - c=1 if OK, c=0 if error (file not found) ============ fseek = B8B4 ============ moves the file pointer to a position within a file ENTRY - DE = file handle - BC = offset from start of file EXIT - c=1 if successful c=0 if offset past end of file (pointer not changed) KNOWN BUG (1.00,1.01) - leaves error messages enabled (fnoisy) Workaround: call fquiet after fopenout if necessary ============ fsize = B8B7 ============ finds size of file ENTRY - HL = zero-terminated filename EXIT - c=1 HL=size in bytes, if found - c=0 if not found ================== fsizehandle = B8BA ================== finds size of an open file ENTRY - DE = file handle EXIT - HL=size in bytes ============ ftell = B8BD ============ returns the value of the file pointer ENTRY - DE = file handle EXIT - HL = current file position =============== ftesteof = B8C0 =============== tests whether end of file has been reached ENTRY - DE=file handle EXIT - c=1 if not eof, c=0 if eof ================= selectfile = B8C3 ================= displays the file selector (clears the screen first) shows all files and allows a selection to be made using the cursor keys and RETURN ENTRY - none EXIT - c=1 if a file selected (RETURN pressed) HL = filename - c=0 if STOP pressed ============= setdta = B8C6 ============= set memory block to be used by findfirst/findnext ENTRY - DE= address of buffer (at least 35 bytes long) buffer must be in common RAM (8000h-BFFFh) EXIT - none ================= fdatestamp = B8C9 ================= sets file date/time to current date/time ENTRY - HL = zero terminated filename EXIT - c=1 if successful - c=0 if not found =============== fsetattr = B8CC =============== sets the attribute byte for a file open for output if the file is open for input only there is no effect ENTRY - DE = file handle - C = attribute byte bit 0 = system file bit 1 = hidden file bit 2 = BASIC program bit 3 = binary file EXIT - c=1 if successful - c=0 if not found =============== fgetattr = B8CF =============== returns attribute byte of file ENTRY - HL = zero-terminated filename EXIT - c=1 A=attribute, if found - c=0 if not found preserves HL ================== kmgetyellow = B8D2 ================== ascertains whether a 'yellow event' is pending (so called because the FUNCTION key is coloured yellow) a yellow event occurs (i) when the user has pressed one of the the FUNCTION+key combinations that cause an immediate context switch (FN+red, FN+green, FN+blue, FN+menu) or (ii) when the machine is powered up and (because the option to preserve context has not been set) needs to return to the main menu ENTRY - none EXIT - c=1, BC=token if yellow event pending An application should exit normally as quickly as possible Any UNSAVED FILES should be SAVED AUTOMATICALLY! - c=0, BC=0 if no yellow event pending Note: each of the yellow event keys return the ESC token (2FCh) An application should call kmgetyellow whenever an ESC is read, this distinguishes between a yellow event and an ordinary ESC. ================== kmsetyellow = B8D5 ================== sets up a yellow event. Specialised use only. ENTRY - BC = a yellow event token EXIT - none ===================== lapcat_receive = B8D8 ===================== reads a character from the parallel port using Lapcat protocol ENTRY - none EXIT - c=1 if successful, A=character c=0 if no character read ================== lapcat_send = B8DB ================== sends a character to the parallel port using Lapcat protocol ENTRY - A=character EXIT - c=1 if successful c=0 if error ==================== padgetversion = B8DE ==================== gets the firmware version number ENTRY - none EXIT - HL = version number (*100) Thus, 1.03 returns 103 ================== diskservice = BA5E ================== calls a Ranger disk routine ENTRY - C = number of routine to call A, HL, DE passed to the disk routine EXIT - c=1 if successful, HL may contain returned value c=0 if failed, A = error code (Ranger documentation) C = 0 r_test 3 r_begin 6 r_change_disk 9 r_check_disk C r_get_cd F r_set_cd 12 r_set_dta 15 r_find_first 18 r_find_next 1B r_save_file 1E r_retrieve_file 21 r_set_attrib 24 r_create_directory 27 r_remove_directory 2A r_delete_file 2D r_rename_file 30 r_finish 33 r_disk_space 36 r_install 39 r_park_heads 3C r_format_track 3F r_format_done 42 r_save_wordstar 45 r_save_ascii 48 r_begin_program 4B r_load_program System variables <<<<<<<<>>>>>>>> The following are the RAM based variables used by the operating system. It is hoped that they will always use these locations in subsequent versions of the software - but this is not guaranteed. B000 copyofmmu0 ds 1 ; copy of MMU0 since it's a write-only port B001 copyofmmu1 ds 1 ; copy of MMU1 since it's a write-only port B002 copyofmmu2 ds 1 ; copy of MMU2 since it's a write-only port B003 copyofmmu3 ds 1 ; copy of MMU3 since it's a write-only port B004 gotcontext ds 1 B005 __savepearlmmu ds 1 ; extra vars needed in case we mustn't save context B006 __saveaf ds 2 B008 __savehl ds 2 B00A saveaf ds 2 ; to save context, we need to save all the registers ... B00C savebc ds 2 B00E savede ds 2 B010 savehl ds 2 B012 saveix ds 2 B014 saveiy ds 2 B016 savepc ds 2 B018 savesp ds 2 B01A saveafdash ds 2 B01C savebcdash ds 2 B01E savededash ds 2 B020 savehldash ds 2 B022 savemmu0 ds 1 ; ... and the memory state B023 savemmu1 ds 1 B024 savemmu2 ds 1 B025 savemmu3 ds 1 B026 savecritpc ds 2 B028 savecritsp ds 2 B02A savingcontext ds 1 B02B nmimagic ds 4 B02F nmichksums ds 8 ; checksum bytes of first 8 roms B037 criticalpc ds 2 ; save pc,sp for recovery from NMI during IRQ B039 criticalsp ds 2 B03B ds 80 ; A small stack which we only use in initialisation. ; It can't sensibly overlap with anything in case we get an NMI ; requring immediate shut down after saving context. ; Subsequent power on will have to restore the context B08B initstack B08B diagnostics? ds 1 ; flag used in start-up, nonzero to do diagnostics B08C saveprinstat ds 1 B08D kbdstate1 ds 10 ; 1 bit per key, 1=down 0=up corresponds to matrix B097 kbdstate2 ds 10 PADKEYBUFLEN equ 32 ; this MUST be 2^n for positive integer n B0A1 padkeybuf ds PADKEYBUFLEN*2 B0E1 padnextin ds 1 ; offset into padkeybuf B0E2 padnextout ds 1 B0E3 padbufempty ds 1 ; nonzero if empty B0E4 lastkbdstate ds 2 B0E6 thiskbdstate ds 2 B0E8 caps.state ds 1 ; 0=off FF=on B0E9 savecaps ds 1 B0EA justswitchedon? ds 1 ; variables above here are preserved after timeout PADSERBUFLEN equ 32 ; this MUST be 2^n for positive integer n B0EB padserbuf ds PADSERBUFLEN B10B padsernextin ds 1 B10C padsernextout ds 1 B10D padserbufempty ds 1 B10E padserin_xoff ds 1 ; non-zero when XOFF has stopped inward transmission B10F padserout_xoff ds 1 ; non-zero when XOFF has stopped outward transmission B110 disablexonxoff ds 1 ; nonzero to disable software handshake B111 ackirq ds 1 ; set non-zero when ACK interrupt occurs B112 rptdelay ds 1 ; centisecs B113 rptrate ds 1 ; centisecs B114 rpttimer ds 1 ; count down timer for key repeat B115 keytorepeat ds 1 ; key number B116 rptkeystates ds 1 ; shift states B117 rtcbuf ds 13 B124 d.alarmday ds 6 ; alarm day,hour,min ready for rtc chip B12A alarmhappened ds 1 ; non zero when alarm has gone off, message pending B12B alarmhappenedgotmsg ds 1 ; non zero when alarm has gone off, got message & pending B12C soundcounter ds 1 ; non-zero if we're playing a tune B12D soundptr ds 2 ; pointer to array of frequency,duration B12F soundrepcount ds 1 B130 soundrepptr ds 2 B132 poweroffminutes ds 1 ; configured time to power off B133 minutesleft ds 1 B134 minutecounter ds 2 B136 eventhappened ds 1 B137 preservecontext ds 1 ; 0=return to main screen at power on B138 dontpreservecontext ds 1 ; 1=dont preserve (diag/batt) B139 mainprog ds 1 ; 6=inbasic, 128=inexternal (foreground program id) B13A currentprinter ds 1 ; 0 for parallel, 1 for serial B13B currentmenu ds 2 ; pointer to current menu B13D wasmenusel ds 1 ; after kmwaitchar this is 1 if menu used, 0 if not ; need this in fsel to know whether redraw needed B13E lastsecond ds 1 ; checked to see whether to update the time B13F clockon? ds 1 ; uses in Protext, non-zero when clock is enabled B140 sdumpname ds 4 ; s.a, s.b, s.c etc. for screen dump name ; force d.workspace to an 8 byte boundary B148 d.workspace ds 8 ; for massaged copy of symbol data (eg inverse/underline) B150 d.datebuf ds 9+MAXMONTHLEN ; 27 January 1992 B162 d.asciitime ds 12 ; hh:mm:ss xm\0 B16E currentcfg ds cfg.len B1BA g.outstream ds 1 ; bit 0 for screen, 1 for printer, 2 for file B1BB g.h.outfile ds 2 ; file handle for charout if bit 2 set B1BD g.pos ds 1 ; current column number (charout) B1CE def.fname ds MAXPNLEN+1 ; Name of current file being edited ; first byte not zero if document open ; (yellow/red goes to edit mode, transfer from addrbook works) B1DD def.first ds 1 ; DO NOT CHANGE THE LAYOUT OF THE FIRST 21 BYTES 0024 len.findinfo equ 36 000D o.findinfo.attr equ 13 000E o.findinfo.size equ 14 0010 o.findinfo.time equ 16 0012 o.findinfo.date equ 18 0023 o.findinfo.mhandle equ 35 B1DE d.findinfobuf ds len.findinfo 0002 o.file.size equ 2 0005 o.file.mhandle equ 5 000D o.file.attr equ 13 000D o.direntry.attr equ 13 000E o.direntry.size equ 14 0010 o.direntry.time equ 16 0012 o.direntry.date equ 18 ; char name; /* 12 chars plus \0 (the file we found) */ ; char attribute; ; uint size; /* filesize can't be bigger than 64k */ ; uint time,date; /* if we allow time & date stamping */ ; char flags; /* memory block flags */ ; char handle; /* memory block handle */ ;****************************************************************************** ; PEARL.TXT DATA ;; The following 8 bytes are saved for each stream B202 d.thisstream ds 8-8 B202 d.colrow ds 2-2 ; keep next 2 together B202 d.row ds 1 ; 0-based within window B203 d.col ds 1 ; B204 d.winlefttop ds 2-2 ; keep next 2 together B204 d.wintop ds 1 B205 d.winleft ds 1 B206 d.winsize ds 2-2 ; keep next 2 together B206 d.winheight ds 1 ; height -1 B207 d.winwidth ds 1 ; width -1 B208 d.winset? ds 1 ; NZ if window B209 d.state ds 1 ; bit 7 if inverse on ;; The following are recalculated from the above (in txtstrselect) B20A d.colrowcount ds 2-2 ; keep next 2 together B20A d.rowcount ds 1 B20B d.colcount ds 1 ; how many more cols to print on this line B20C d.stream ds 1 ; current stream number B20D d.fastpos ds 2 ; needed for quick screen update B20F d.streamwsp ds 8*NSTREAMS ; 8 streams of 8 bytes each B24F d.dateptr ds 2 ; non null for expanding time/date B251 d.kmcharret ds 2 ; Returned character B253 d.kstate ds 2 ; Key locks state B255 d.caslocks ds 1 ; Shift states set by sticky key press B256 d.sticky ds 1 ; non-zero in sticky key mode B257 d.yellow ds 1 ; low byte of yellow/other key token ; stored by p.xlattoken which then returns ESC B258 d.calcmode ds 1 ; nonzero if keyboard in calculator mode B259 d.kmexplen ds 1 ; expansion string length B25A d.kmexpptr ds 2 ; expansion string pointer B25C d.expbuffer ds 2 ; address of expansion key buffer B25E d.expbufptr ds 2 ; pointer to free byte B260 d.expbufend ds 2 ; last byte in buffer B2A1 macro_buf ds 256 ; file selector variables B3A7 fs_clicat ds 1 ; non-zero if CAT command, not fsel B3A8 fs_showsizes ds 1 ; non-zero if showing file sizes (pad default=off) B3A9 fs_showsys ds 1 ; non-zero if showing system files B3AA fs_curfile ds 1 ; current file number offset from top left B3AB fs_topleftfile ds 1 ; file number displayed top left B3AC fs_numcols ds 1 B3AD fs_colwidth ds 1 B3AE fs_numshown ds 1 B3AF fs_maxfiles ds 1 ; max files that can be shown FS_NUMROWS .equ 7 ; display rows FS_NUMCOLS .equ 5 FS_COLWIDTH .equ 16 B3B0 fs_handle ds 2 FS_NUMSHOWN .equ FS_NUMCOLS*FS_NUMROWS ; number of files shown B3B2 fs_numfilerows ds 1 ; rows of files in CAT command B3B3 fs_startlist ds 2 ; start of file list ; zero if doing unsorted list B3B5 fs_startdir ds 2 ; start of directory entries B3B7 fs_endlist ds 2 B3B9 fs_numfiles ds 1 ; number of files in directory B3BA fs_lastshown ds 1 ; last filenumber currently shown ; fs_topleft + FS_NUMSHOWN B3BB tickcount ds 4 ; 32 bit counter needed for basic B3BF ticksleftuntilevent ds 2 B3C1 tickreloadvalue ds 2 B3C3 tickeventpending ds 1 B3C4 countdowntimer ds 2 B3C6 savestream ds 1 B3C7 password ds 5 ; encrypted B3CC pwbuf ds 5 ; clear B3D1 realpwbuf ds 5 ; the real password saved for encrypting B3D6 haspassword ds 1 ; non-zero if has password ;passwdmsg ds 2 B3D7 passwdlen ds 1 B3D8 passwordlocked ds 1 ; non-zero if locked (disallow soft reset) B3D9 editingsecret ds 1 ; non-zero when editing secret file (can't delete it) B3DA inmenu? ds 1 ; non-zero when inside menu - macros disabled B3DB macro_count ds 1 B3DC recording? ds 1 B3DD macro_token ds 2 B3DF printfailed ds 1 ; flag set by mccheckprinter ; stops "finished printing" message B3E0 wasmemoryerr ds 1 B3E1 inprotext ds 1 ; used in file selector, 0=was Fn-L, nonzero=Fn-2 **** End ****